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Table 2 Studies included from search number two

From: Generic quality of life in persons with hearing loss: a systematic literature review

Authors Type of study Hearing loss and Distress OR anxiety OR depression Sample size and gender Age Results CCAT score
Gopinath, B., et al. (2012) [62] Survey Distress 811 (control group = 687) No data on gender ≥ 55 years Older patients with HL are significantly more likely to experience emotional distress directly due to their HL. 31
Nachtegaal, J., et al. (2009) [61] Cross- sectional Distress, depression 1511 No data on gender 18–70 years. Divided into 5 age strata(18–29, 30–39,40–49, 50–59 and 60–70 years) HL is negatively associated with higher distress, depression, somatization and lonliness in young and middle- aged groups. 33
Tseng, C. C., et al. (2016) [58] Longitudinal Depression 1717 (control group = 6868) 55% male 39–63 years. Median = 51 years Patients with suddensensorineural hearing loss (SSHNL) are 2.17 times more at risk for depressive disorders, compared to those without SSNHL. Especially in age groups ˂ 60 years. 29
Li et al. (2014) Survey Depression 18,318 Male = 48% Adults 18 years or older. HL is significantly associated with depression, particulary in women and those younger than 70 years. 25
18–44 years: 49.4%
45–69 years: 39.1%
≥ 70years: 11.5%
Kramer, S. E., et al. (2002) [63] Longitudinal (part of the LASA- study) Depression and other chronic diseases 1506 (in the LASA- study) 55–85 years Elderly with HL report significantly more depressive symptoms, in addition to negative association to other psychosocial variables. 20
Cetin,B., et al. (2010) [60] Prospective Depression and anxiety 90 (contol group = 90). All participants were male, military personel 21–30 years Mean age = 21.72 years Higher level of depression and anxiety in the patient group, compared to the control group in the study. The duration of the HL was positevely correlated with anxiety and depression. 20
Carlsson, P.-I., et al. (2015) [24] Retrospective Depression and anxiety 1247 mean age = 67 years. Male = 51% 19–101 years, mean age 68 years This study indicate greater levels of anxiety and depression among patients with severe or profound HL, than in the general population. 32