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Table 1 Included studies from the primary search

From: Generic quality of life in persons with hearing loss: a systematic literature review

Study Type of study QoL Questionnaire used in study First time/ experienced users? Number of participants in study Age Unilateral or Bilateral HL Range and character - HL HA fitting Results CCAT score
Capoani Garcia Mondelli, M. F. and P. J. Soalheiro de Souza, 2012 [46] Cross sectional/Longitudinal Generic WHOQOL - bref First time 30 (57% male) Range: 60–90 years, mean age 76.8 years bilateral Moderate hearing loss. No further definition. Before HA fitting (ISAD) and after 3 months. Using HA (ISAD) improved the overall QoL 25
Chew, H. S. and S. Yeak, 2010 [49] Cross sectional Generic: SF 36 First time 80 (41% male) Range: 50 years and over. Median age 69 years bilateral >25 dB PTA in the better ear. Not specified SF-36 lacked specificity and sensitivity in assesing the impact on HL on QoL 21
Chia, E.-M., et al., 2007 [50] Cross sectional Generic: SF 36 Not specified 2431 Mean age: 67 years Unilateral and bilateral Unilateral HI defined as HI in one ear and no HI in the other ear. Bilateral HI defined as HI in both ears. HI defined as >25 dB PTA Not specified Unilateral HL: No significant difference in QoLthan those whitout HL. Bilateral HL: Poorer QoL than those whitout HL. 27
Dalton, D. S., et al., 2003 [44] 5- year follow-up Longitudinal SF-36 (Generic) Not specified 2688, (42% male) 53–97 years, mean age 69 years Not specified Mild: 26–440 dB PTA HL in eighterear. Moderate to severe: >40 dB PTA in eighter ear Not specified HL was associated with reduced QoL. 36
Espmark, A. K. K., et al., 2002 [47] Cross sectional HMS (26 questions, where 4 of 20 items where related to QoL) First time 154 (38% male) Born 1920 or earlier Not specified Three groups: Normal to slight HL: <30 dB PTA. Mild HL: 30–39 dB PTA. Moderate to severe HL: ≥ 40 dB PTA Not specified HL was significantly associated with reduced QoL in all four dimensions in females and in two of four in males. 27
Hallberg, L. R., et al., 2008 [51] Cross sectional PGWB Mixed 79 (39% male) 48–92 years, mean age 68.7 years Bilateral PTA low at Freq.0.5, 1 and 2 kHz was 39.6 dB. PTA high at Freq. 2,3,4 and 6 kHz was 55.5 dB Not specified HL was significantly associated with reduced QoL. Psychsocial consequenses of HI, such as lowered QoL, cannotbe predicted from audiometric data alone. 33
Helvik, A. S., et al., 2006 [52] Cross sectional PGWB Mixed, mean duration of the HI was 15.1 years 343 (55% male) 21–94 years, mean age 69 years Not specified Mean threshold of hearing for the total sample was 43.0 dB Not specified Psychological well-being was associated with activity limitation and participation restriction, but not with the degree of HL and use of communication strategies 28
Lotfi, Y., et al., 2009 [48] Cross sectional/Longitudinal HHIE First time users 207 (71% male) ˃60 years, meanage 73.01 years Not specified Moderate HL: 56–70 dB Profound HL: 71–90 dB Before HA fitting and after 3 months Significant improvement in QoL after HA fitting 19
Meyer, J. M. and S. Kashubeck-West, 2013 [55] Cross sectional HHIA and The meassureof psychological well-being (generic) Not specified 277 (25% male) 18–65 years Mean age49 years Not specified Not specified Not specified Relationship between perceived severity and perceived disability acted as direct predictors to well-being and as a indirect predictors through their relationship with coping. No significant association between QoL and HL 30
Miyakita, T., et al., 2002 [54] Cross sectional Generic, LISZ, 13 questions about QoL Not specified 210 retired workers, gender not specified 56–65 years, mean age 60.6 years Not specified Not specified Not specified Hearing disabillities was associated with deteriorationin QoL. No significant association between QoL and HL 23
Niemensivu, R., et al., 2015 [45] Prospective study Including control group Generic 15D First time HA 949 with HI (42% male), Control group 4685 persons Mean age: 73.8 years Not specified Frequencies 0.5,1,2 and 4 kHz. Four categories of HL. Mild: 25–40 dB, moderate: 41–70 dB, Severe 71–95 dB and very severe: >95 dB. Before HA fitting (in the better ear) and after six monthts Significant improvementin QoLafter unilateral HA fitting 29
Stark, P. and L. Hickson, 2004 [53] Cross sectional/Longitudinal Generic SF- 36 First time HA 131(67% male) 47–90 years, mean age 71.7 years Not specified Not devided in groups. PTA at0.5, 1 and 2 kHz in the better ear. Before HA fitting and after 3 months No significant improvements in HRQoL after HA fitting. 30
25 dB or less: n = 18
26–35 dB:n = 44
36–46 dB:n = 23
46–55 dB: n = 8
Vuorialho, A., et al., 2006 [56] Cross sectional/Longitudinal Generic EQ-5D in combination with HHIE-S First time HA 98 (50% male) 61–87 years (median 77 years) Not specified Not specified Before HA fitting and after 6 months No significant QoL improvement after HA- fitting 30
  1. EQ-5D EuroQol Group- 5 Dimensions
  2. SF- 36 Medical Outcome Study (MOS) Short Form- 36 Health Survey Scale
  3. 15D 15 Dimension (a standardized self-administered measure of Health related Quality of Life)
  4. LISZ Life Satisfaction Index, version Z
  5. HMS Hearing Measurement Scale
  6. PGWB Psychological General Well Being index
  7. WHOQOL – bref Abbreviated version of the WHO QoL- 100 Quality of Life assessment
  8. HHIE/HHIA Hearing Handicap Inventory for the Elderly/Adults
  9. HHI-S HHIE - Screening version