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Table 2 Unadjusted and adjusted estimates for HA-use (versus not) for women and men by sociodemographic and audiological variablesa

From: How sociodemographic and hearing related factors were associated with use of hearing aid in a population-based study: The HUNT Study

Women (n = 5684) HA-use No HA Unadjusted Model 1 Model 2
(N) (N) OR 95 % CI OR 95 % CI OR 95 % CI
Sociodemographic variables
 Age    1.124 1.109–1.140 0.994 0.971–1.017 0.996 0.971–1.022
 Having spouseb         
  No 370 2515   Reference   Reference   Reference
  Yes 213 2579 0.561 0.470–0.670 1.064 0.799–1.415 1.035 0.755–1.418
 Educationb         
  Up to ten years education 386 3394   Reference   Reference   Reference
  Vocational and general education 74 653 0.996 0.766–1.295 1.489 1.042–2.127 1.558 1.051–2.308
  College and university 19 250 0.668 0.414–1.078 1.239 0.668–2.300 1.108 0.574–2.141
Audiological variables
 Low frequency hearing thresholds         
  <20 dB 22 1763   Reference   Reference   Reference
  20 ≤  HT < 30 dB 64 1986 2.582 1.584–4.210 0.996 0.572–1.736 0.925 0.494–1.734
  30 ≤  HT <40 dB 120 887 10.841 6.833–17.202 1.468 0.851–2.532 1.291 0.704–2.366
  40 ≤  HT <50 dB 150 314 38.282 24.087–60.841 2.076 1.165–3.697 1.554 0.819–2.950
  50 ≤  HT <60 dB 108 103 84.026 50.982–138.489 1.765 0.920–3.388 1.324 0.643–2.726
  60 ≤  HT <70 dB 58 24 193.663 102.640–365.405 1.985 0.817–4.826 1.826 0.670–4.905
  HT ≥ 70 dB 61 24 203.680 108.227–383.319 0.845 0.301–2.369 0.876 0.284–2.704
 Medium frequency hearing thresholds    3.595 3.288–3.930 3.473 2.936–4.109 2.816 2.340–3.390
 High frequency hearing thresholds    2.441 2.280–2.614 1.020 0.901–1.155 0.962 0.836–1.106
 Bothered by hearing lossb         
  Not at all 45 3374   Reference     Reference
  Yes, a little 237 877 20.262 14.607–28.106    6.409 4.276–9.583
  Yes, a lot 246 131 140.798 97.981–202.326    15.298 9.607–24.359
 Nagelkerke R Square in %
-2Log likelihood
      54.9
1655.068
  61.3
1305.535
 Men ( n  = 4815)         
Sociodemographic variables
 Age    1.087 1.074–1.100 0.986 0.969–1.003 1.004 0.984–1.024
 Having spousec         
  No 184 1000   Reference   Reference   Reference
  Yes 703 2923 1.307 1.095–1.561 2.000 1.556–2.571 1.901 1.346–2.517
Educationc         
  Up to ten years education 454 2019   Reference   Reference   Reference
  Vocational and general education 241 1104 0.971 0.817–1.154 1.457 1.166–1.820 1.384 1.086–1.764
  College and university 56 343 0.726 0.538–0.980 1.396 0.954–2.047 1.482 0.985–2.230
Audiological variables
 Low frequency hearing thresholds         
  <20 dB 116 1879   Reference   Reference   Reference
  20 ≤  HT < 30 dB 212 1352 2.540 2.004–3.219 1.136 0.854–1.511 1.089 0.799–1.485
  30 ≤  HT <40 dB 234 471 8.048 6.303–10.276 1.710 1.244–2.349 1.462 1.034–2.067
  40 ≤  HT <50 dB 165 152 17.584 13.166–23.484 2.180 1.482–3.208 1.887 1.240–2.870
  50 ≤  HT <60 dB 86 42 33.168 21.927–50.172 2.137 1.213–3.764 1.767 0.952–3.282
  60 ≤  HT <70 dB 41 10 66.413 32.448–135.929 3.481 1.328–9.1263 2.698 0.957–7.613
  HT ≥ 70 dB 35 20 28.347 15.863–50.655 0.281 0.118–0.666 0.299 0.119–0.751
 Medium frequency hearing thresholds    2.801 2.617–2.997 2.720 2.438–3.034 2.274 2.019–2.560
 High frequency hearing thresholds    1.960 1.855–2.072 1.011 0.928–1.102 0.925 0.840–1.018
 Bothered by hearing lossc         
  Not at all 52 2261   Reference     Reference
  Yes, a little 440 1147 16.680 12.405–22.427    7.458 5.225–10.644
  Yes, a lot 315 154 88.938 63.574–124.420    17.024 11.238–25.778
 Nagelkerke R Square in %
-2Log likelihood
      47.2
2518.553
  54.4
2062.380
  1. The variables presented in the models are adjusted for each other. Model 1included socio-demographic variables and measured hearing thresholds in low, medium and high frequencies and in Model 2 included additional being bothered by hearing loss
  2. OR odds ratio, CI confidence intervals
  3. aMedium and high frequency hearing thresholds were entered as continuous variables scaled with 10 dB as units for men and women
  4. bNumbers do not sum to 5684, due to missing information on single independent variables in the material for women
  5. cNumbers do not sum to 4815, due to missing information on single independent variables in the material for men
  6. The number of participants in analyses vary owing to missing information on single independent variables,
  7. -participating women: 5684 in unadjusted analysis without missing, 4769 in model 1 and 4116 in model 2,
  8. -participating men: 4815 in unadjusted analysis without missing, 4212 in model 1 and 3841 in model 2
  9. Bold numbers in the table are significant associations