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Table 2 Frequencies of female and male participants in subgroups of disability, anxiety and depression

From: Gender differences in patients with dizziness and unsteadiness regarding self-perceived disability, anxiety, depression, and its associations

Variables Categories Female (n = 124) (n [%]) Male (n = 76) (n [%]) Chi-square statistics
Severe disabilitya present 31 (25.0) 15 (19.2) x 2 (1) = 0.467;
  not present 93 (74.9) 63 (80.8) p = 0.494
Abnormal anxietyb present 18 (14.5) 18 (23.7) x 2 (1) = 2.088;
  not present 106 (85.5) 58 (76.3) p = 0.148
Abnormal depressionc present 19 (15.3) 22 (28.9) x 2 (1) = 4.541;
  not present 105 (84.7) 54 (71.0) p = 0.033
  1. a Subjects who rated their disability as mild or moderate were put together in the category 'severe disability not present
  2. b Anxiety was assessed with the anxiety subscale of the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS). Subjects with scores of ≥ 11 points were found to have abnormal anxiety [40].
  3. c Depression was assessed with the depression subscale of the HADS. Subjects with scores ≥ 9 points in Chi-square statistic was calculated with the Mantel-Haenszel test. HADS-D were found to have abnormal depression [40].
  4. An adjustment of the significance value was calculated: alpha/n; n = number of comparisons; alpha = 0.05: corrected significance level: 0.05/3 = 0.017