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Table 1 Baseline characteristics of the study population (n = 202)

From: Gender differences in patients with dizziness and unsteadiness regarding self-perceived disability, anxiety, depression, and its associations

  Total sample Female Male gender comparisons
Total sample (n [%]) 202 (100) 124 (61.4) 78 (38.6)  
Age (mean [SD]) 49.7 (13.5) 50.2 (13.2) 48.9 (14.1) n.s.1
Groups of diagnoses (n [%])     
UPVD 77 (38.1) 46 (37.1) 31 (39.7) n.s.2
BPVD 18 (8.9) 9 (7.3) 9 (11.5)  
Psychophysic dizziness 20 (9.9) 14 (11.3) 6 (7.7)  
Vestibular migraine 27 (13.4) 19 (15.3) 8 (10.3)  
Multiple vestibular disorders 16 (7.9) 11 (8.9) 5 (6.4)  
CVD 19 (9.4) 10 (8.1) 9 (11.5)  
Multifactorial dizziness 25 (12.4) 15 (12.1) 10 (12.8)  
Illness duration (n [%])     
> 1 mo, < 6 mo 58 (28.7) 37 (29.8) 21 (26.9) n.s.2
> 6 mo, < 12 mo 27 (13.4) 15 (12.1) 12 (15.4)  
> 12 mo 117 (57.9) 72 (58.1) 45 (57.7)  
Employment status (n [%])     
not employed 61 (30.2) 43 (34.7) 18 (23.1) p2 = 0.000
< 50% 23 (11.4) 17 (13.7) 6 (7.7)  
50 - 79% 25 (12.4) 23 (18.5) 2 (2.6)  
> 80% 93 (46.0) 41 (33.1) 52 (66.7)  
Living condition (n [%])     
alone 39 (19.3) 20 (16.1) 19 (24.4) n.s.2
with adult partner 97 (48.0) 61 (49.2) 36 (46.2)  
with adult partner and childs 57 (28.2) 34 (27.4) 23 (29.5)  
with childs 9 (4.5) 9 (7.3) 0  
DHI-G (mean [SD]) 44.6 (22.2) 45.8 (21.7) 42.6 (23.0) n.s.1
HADS-A* (median [IQR]) 6.0 (6.0) 6.0 (6.0) 6.0 (7.0) n.s.3
HADS-D* (median [IQR]) 4.0 (5.0) 4.0 (5.0) 4.0 (7.0) n.s.3
VSS-VER (median [IQR]) 17.0 (18.0) 17.0 (18.0) 14.5 (16.0) n.s.3
VSS-AA (median [IQR]) 17.0 (15.0) 18.0 (15.0) 14.0 (12.75) n.s.3
  1. * n = 200
  2. 1 = Student t-test
  3. 2 = Pearson chi-square statistic
  4. 3 = Mann-Whitney U
  5. BPVD indicates bilateral peripheral vestibular dysfunction, CVD central vestibular dysfunction, HADS Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale, HADS-A anxiety subscale of the HADS (score: 0-21), HADS-D depression subscale of the HADS (score: 0-21), mo month, n.s. not significant, UPVD unilateral peripheral vestibular dysfunction, VSS Vertigo Symptom Scale, VSS-VER subscale measuring 'vertigo and related symptoms' (Score: 0-76), VSS-AA subscale measuring 'somatic anxiety and autonomic arousal' (Score: 0-60).